Types of Orbits

  • Most satellites are custom-built to perform their intended missions and functions. There are various uses of satellites that define their payloads and type of orbital configuration.

  • There are 2 types of  satellite orbits:

      Non-Geostationary Orbit ("NGSO")

  • Low earth orbit ("LEO"), Medium Earth orbit ("MEO"), High Earth orbit ("HEO").
  • Tiungsat-1 and Razaksat, the earliest NGSO Malaysian satellites, were respectively launched in September 2000 and July 2009.
  • International Space Station ("ISS") orbits the Earth at an average altitude of approximately 400 km.
  • Rising number of NGSO constellations (inclusing LEO and MEO satellites) particularly for broadband connectivity.

     Geostationary Orbit ("GSO")

  • At 36,000 km above equator, the satellite remains in fixed position relative to a particular points on Earth.
  • A satellite capable of providing coverage cover approximately one-third of the Earth's surface.
  • MEASAT-1 and -2 were the first Malaysian privately owned satellite launched respectively in January and November 1996.
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